1.1 Background of the Uruguay Round negotiations On the eve of the Uruguay Round negotiations, it became increasingly clear that the causes of confusion in global agriculture went beyond the problems of access to imports, which were the traditional focus of the GATT negotiations. To reach the root causes of the problems, disciplines were considered essential for all agricultural trade measures, including national agricultural policy and agricultural export subsidies. In addition, clearer rules on health and plant health measures were deemed necessary, both in their own legislation and in avoiding the circumvention of stricter rules on access to imports through unjustified and protectionist application of food security, as well as animal and plant health measures. While the volume of world agricultural exports has increased significantly in recent decades, its growth rate has remained below that of industrial enterprises, resulting in a steady decline in the share of agriculture in world merchandise trade. In 1998, agricultural trade accounted for 10.5% of total merchandise trade, taking into account trade in services, while agriculture`s share of world exports was 8.5%. However, in the field of world trade, agriculture still lays ahead of sectors such as mining products, automotive products, chemicals, textiles and clothing, or iron and steel. Among agricultural products marketed internationally, food accounts for almost 80% of the total. The other main category of agricultural products is raw materials. Since the mid-1980s, trade in processed agricultural products and other quality agricultural products has grown much faster than trade in staple foodstuffs, such as cereals.
This chapter presents the context of the Convention on Agriculture. He gives a brief overview of the history of the GATT and notes that he acknowledges its origin in the 1947 agreement, the reasons for the final extension of the scope of the negotiations to agricultural trade, as well as the countries and issues that dominated the discussions that preceded the agreement. Meanwhile, the demands of developing countries have focused on the need for special and differentiated treatment in the negotiations. They stressed that agriculture plays an important role in the development of their respective countries and that the new GATT rules and disciplines should not hinder agricultural growth by putting undue pressure on public aid policies. (a) aggregate assessment of support and AMS: the annual amount of the level of national currency support for an agricultural product for producers of agricultural commodities or specific assistance to agricultural producers in general, with the exception of aid provided under programmes exempted from reduction in accordance with Schedule 2 of this agreement. The twenty agreements were signed in April 1994 in Marrakech, the Marrakech agreement. 3. All deliveries of the goods in question that went on the basis of a draft concluded prior to the introduction of the additional duty under paragraph 1 (a) and paragraph 4 are exempt from such an additional duty, provided they can be counted in the import volume of the goods in question the following year to trigger the provisions of paragraph 1 point a).